[NOTE: the 17th printing due in 1999 will contain, inter alia, the following changes (click here to learn more)]
Galveston College Library CITING ONLINE SOURCES MLA STYLE:
Abbreviations Used in Legal Citations
Brandeis guide to Legal Research:
Citing Electronic Sources by Samford University
Pitsco's Launch to Citing WWW Addresses links to many citations guides
(for instance in different disciplines).
A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities
by Melvin E. Page.
"Internet World" has a very interesting article on how to cite to internet sources. The
format comes from a source called "Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting
Electronic Sources on the Internet."
There is also "Guide for Citing Electronic Information" at
which is a summary of X. Li and N. Crane's book "Electronic Style: A Guide for Citing
Land, T. [a.k.a Beads] (1996, March 31). Web Extension to American
Psychological Association Style (WEAPAS) (Rev. 1.2.4) [WWW document].
Guidelines for doing electronic legal research -
Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications
Case Names Citators by Shepard's
EXAMPLES: Style of Citation for Internet Sources
Galveston College Library CITING ONLINE SOURCES MLA STYLE:
Abbreviations Used in Legal Citations
Brandeis guide to Legal Research:
Citing Electronic Sources by Samford University
Pitsco's Launch to Citing WWW Addresses links to many citations guides (for instance in different disciplines).
A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities by Melvin E. Page.
"Internet World" has a very interesting article on how to cite to internet sources. The format comes from a source called "Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet."
There is also "Guide for Citing Electronic Information" at which is a summary of X. Li and N. Crane's book "Electronic Style: A Guide for Citing Electronic Information."
Land, T. [a.k.a Beads] (1996, March 31). Web Extension to American Psychological Association Style (WEAPAS) (Rev. 1.2.4) [WWW document].
APA and MLA
APA Style Individual Works (Single spaced)
Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date]. Pritzker, T.J. (No date). An Early fragment from central Nepal [Online]. Available: http://www.ingress.com/~astanart/pritzker/pritzker.html [1995, June 8].
APA Style Journal Articles
Author. (Year). Title. Journal Title [Type of medium], volume(issue), paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable: Site/Path/File [Access date]. Inada, K. (1995). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics [Online], 2,9 paragraphs. Available: http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html [1995, June 21].
APA Style Magazine Articles
Author. (Year, month day). Title. Magazine Title [Type of medium], volume (if given), paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date]. Viviano, F. (1995, May/June). The new Mafia order. Mother Jones Magazine [Online], 72 paragraphs. Available: http://www.mojones.com/MOTHER-JONES/MJ95/viviano.html [1995, July 17].
APA Style Discussion List
Author. (Year, Month day). Subject of message. Discussion List [Type of medium]. Available E-mail: LISTSERV@e-mail address/Get [Access date]. Discussions on All Forms of Cinema [Online]. Available E-mail: LISTSERV@american.edu/Get cinema-1 log9504A [1995, August 1]. Author for this citation is unknown.
Internet APA Site
Xia, L. (1996, July 27). Electronic Sources: APA Style of Citation, [Online]. Available: http://www.uvm.edu/~xil/reference/apa.html [1998, April 18]. Brown, K. (1997, December 26). APA Style Guide, [Online]. Available: http://www.med.usf.edu/~km brown/apa.html [1998, April 18].
MLA Style Book (Citations are double spaced)
Nesbit, E[dith]. Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. 26 Apr. 1997 http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/nesbit/ballsoc.html.
MLA Style Personal Site
Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 1 May 1997 http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080/~ian/index..html.
MLA Style Article
"Fresco." Britannica Online. Vers. 97.1.1. Mar. 1997. Encyclopedia Britannica. 29 Mar. 1997 http://www.eb.com:180.
Interne MLA Site
MLA Style. The Modern Language Association of America. 1998 http://www.mal.org/main_stl.htm.
Blue Book & Texas Rules of Form
Blue Book 16th edition Rule 17.3.3 (p. 124) Internet Sources
"Citation to Internet sources is discouraged unless the materials are unavailable in printed form or are difficult to obtain in their original form. When citing to materials found on the Internet, provide the name of the author (if any), the title or top-level heading of the material being cited, and the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)…. For electronic journals and publications, the actual date of publication should be given. Otherwise, provide the most recent modification date of the source preceded by the term "last modified" or the date of access preceded by the term 'visited' if the modification date is unavailable."
Blue Book Websites (Single spaced)
Mark Israel, The alt.usage.english FAQ File (last modified Nov. 17, 1995) ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/alt.usage/english/alt.usage.englisy_FAQ.
Scott Adams, The Dilbert Zone (visited Jan. 20, 1996) http://www.unitedmedia.com/comics/dilbert.
Blue Book Electronic Journals
Dan L. Burk, Trademarks Along the Infobahn: A First Look at the Emerging Law of Cybermarks, 1 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 1, ¶ 12 (Apr. 10, 1995) http://www.urich.edu/~jolt/vlil/burk.html.
Texas Rules of Form 9th edition (Single spaced)
Chapter 21-Internet Resources (pp. 72-72).
"Citation to Internet resources can often be very helpful, not only in the case of information that is exclusively available on the Internet, but for very recent or otherwise hard-to-find resources as well. However, when a published 'hard copy' source is available, it is still the preferred source for citation purposes. When citing Internet resources, analogize to the citation forms for the published source. Provide the URL in angled brackets. For an electronic journal or publication, give the exact date of publication. Otherwise, cite to the most recent revision of the source. If a publication date or revision date is not available, note the date of access to the resource."
Texas Rules of Form
Tex. Reg. (Jan. 10, 1997) (emerg. Rule 4 Tex. Admin. Code § 20.22) (adopted Jan. 1, 1997, expired Jan. 16, 1997) (Tex. Dep't Agric., Stalk Destruction Requirements) http://www.sos.state.tx.us/texreg/sos/ EMERGENCY/agriculture.html#6.
Texas Rules of Form Electronic Journal or Publication
Texas State Publications Depository Program: Publications, Indexes, and Accessibility, GIPcy: Gov't Info. Pathfinder in Cyberspace (July 9, 1995) http://www.law.uh.edu/publications/GIPcy/gipcy9.html.
Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Journal (vol. 16, no. 1, 1995, pages 191-209) contains a "New Media Citation Guide," for many types of electronic information.
Xia Li and Nancy B. Crane, Electronic Style: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information, PN 171.F56 L5 1996 at Reserve.
Harvard Law Review
The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. 16th ed.
Ref KF 245 U53 1996 *
The Citation Workbook: How to Beat the Citation Blues
Ref KF 245 C53 1993
Citing & Typing the Law: A Guide to Legal Citation and Style (Based on The Bluebook). 3d ed.
KF 245 G66 1992 *
Essentials of Legal Citation
KF 245 L66 1992
How to Prepare a Legal Citation.
Ref KF 245 M34 1986
Goodbye to the Bluebook
Appendix: University of Chicago Manual of Legal Citation
KF 245 P64 1986*
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago Manual of Legal Citation (aka "The Maroon Book").
KF 245 U544 1989*
User's Guide to A Uniform System of Citation: The Cure for the Bluebook Blues, rev. for 16th edition.
Ref & KF 245 D85 1996*
Law Reporting Bureau
Official New York Law Reports Style Manual.
Ref KFN 5075 N49 1992
St. John's L. Rev
New York Rules of Citation
Ref KFN 5074.5 N48 1978
U.S. Dept. of Justice Tax Division
Citation and Style Manual.
Law Documents J 1.8/2:C49/3
Va. Tax Review
TaxCite: A Federal Tax Citation and Reference Manual
Ref KF 241 T38 T39 1995
STATE LEGAL CITATION SYSTEMS: CITATION AUTHORITY EXPECTED TO BE USED IN THE HIGHEST APPELLATE STATE COURTS (Based on a 1985 survey of the highest appellate courts of each state. Revised by the author in March 1991) ALABAMA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. ALASKA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. ARIZONA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges No expectation. ARKANSAS SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges No expectation. CALIFORNIA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Formichi, Robert E. California style manual: a handbook of legal style for California courts and lawyers / by Robert E. Formichi. 3rd ed. Sacramento : Supreme Court of Calif.? ; North Highlands, CA : For sale by Dept. of General Services, Publications Section, c1986. This manual is written by the Reporter of Decisions of the California State Supreme Court, and is issued under approval of the State Supreme Court as a handbook of legal style for California courts and lawyers. COLORADO SUPREME COURT Counsel only No expectation. Judges only Harvard Bluebook. Uniform Citation Forms. approved for use in Colorado Supreme Court opinions 5/3/84 (amended 5/17/84) 2p. Lists deviations from the Harvard Bluebook for Colorado materials. CONNECTICUT SUPREME COURT Counsel only No expectation. Judges only In-house style sheet which closely parallels, but does not follow in all instances, the Harvard Bluebook. DELAWARE SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Counsel only "[C]itations will be deemed to be in acceptable form if made in accordance with the 'Uniform System of Citation' ...." Delaware Supreme Court Rule, 14(g). This rule deviates from the Bluebook form in requiring that citations to state reporters should not be made where a National Reporter Citation exists. Judges only No citations to state reporters should be made where a National Reporter citation exists. Examples of unreported Delaware opinions and orders. Delaware Supreme Court Rule, 93(c). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COURT OF APPEALS Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Citation Guidance Memorandum. revised December 1982, effective January 1, 1983. 6p. "Unless in conflict with anything in this memorandum, follow 'A Uniform System of Citation' ...." Citation Guidance Memorandum, sec. 1. FLORIDA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Florida Rules of Appellate Procedure, 9.800, gives examples of citations to Florida material, and to federal court reports. "All other citations shall be in the form prescribed by A Uniform System of Citations ...." Fla. R. App. P., 9.800(m). Additional citation authority Florida Style Manual, 19 Fl. St. U.L. Rev. 525 (1991). GEORGIA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Counsel only "Any enumerated error which is not supported by arguments or citation of authority in the brief shall be deemed abandoned. All citations of authority must be full and complete." Georgia Supreme Court Rules, 45. Additional citation authority Leah F. Chanin, Reference Guide to Georgia Legal History and Legal Research. Appendix V. Citation Forms. Charlottesville, Va.: Michie, 1980. (with 1983 supplement). HAWAII SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges No expectation. Hawaii Rules of Appellate Procedure, 28(b)(1), requires that the Table of Authorities in briefs, contain citations to "both the official and the national reporter system." IDAHO SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Judges only Internal Rules of the Idaho Supreme Court, Rule 14(e), which gives variations from the Bluebook for Idaho materials, also says: "If not covered by rule or statute, citations shall be in conformity with the current edition of 'A Uniform System of Citation' ...." ILLINOIS SUPREME COURT Counsel only Illinois Supreme Court Rule, 341(d), prescribes pinpoint, official reporter, textbook and statute citations. Judges only Style Manual for Illinois and Appellate Courts. Bloomington: Administrative Office of the Illinois Courts, 1981. 52p. INDIANA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Indiana Rules of Appellate Procedure, 8.2(B) "It is recommened that when briefs contain references to scholarly treatises, law journals, statutes, etc., citations should follow the form prescribed by the current edition of the Harvard Citator." Ind. R. App. P., 8.2(B)(2) IOWA SUPREME COURT Counsel only Iowa Rules of Appellate Procedure, 14(e), prescribes pinpoint, official, unpublished opinion, text book and Code citations. Judges only Citation System and Format Guidebook. Des Moines, Iowa: Supreme Court, 1984. 42p. KANSAS SUPREME COURT Counsel only No expectation. Judges only Harvard Bluebook. Appellate Reporter's Office Citation Manual KENTUCKY SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Kentucky Rules of Civil Procedure, 76.12(g) prescribes official reporter, and Revised Statute citations. LOUISIANA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Additional citation material Louisiana Law Review. Citation Form Addendum. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1983. 12p. (with 1p. amendment, dated June 27, 1983) MAINE SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT Counsel and judges Michael D. Seitzinger & Charles K. Leadbetter, Uniform Maine Citations. Portland: Maine Law Review, 1983. v, 29p. Harvard Bluebook. MARYLAND COURT OF APPEALS Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. MASSACHUSETTS SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. MICHIGAN SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Michigan Uniform System of Citations, adopted by the Supreme Court, October 4, 1971, Administrative Order No. 1971-3, 385 Mich. xxvi. Additional citation material Alterman, Plain and Accurate Style in Lawsuit Papers, 2 Cooley L. Rev. 243 (1984). John Doyle, Michigan Citation Manual. Buffalo, N.Y.: Wm. S. Hein, 1986. Rules of Citation. Proposed Michigan Court Rules, Subchapter 7.500, 402A Mich. 455 (1978). Florence M. Telling & Marilyn A. Estes, Michigan Uniform System of Citation. Rev. ed. Detroit: Legal Secretaries Association, 1982. MINNESOTA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Additional citation material Citation Manual. St. Paul: Minnesota Supreme Court, 1979. MISSISSIPPI SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. MISSOURI SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Judges only Internal memorandum on citation form (9/17/79). 12p. Closely follows the Harvard Bluebook, but deviates in a few instances. MONTANA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. NEBRASKA SUPREME COURT Counsel only Nebraksa Supreme Court Rule, 9C(4) - (6) Judges only Harvard Bluebook. NEVADA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges No expectation. NEW HAMPSHIRE SUPREME COURT Counsel only Supreme Court Rule 16(9), prescribes the form for case citations. Judges only No expectation. NEW JERSEY SUPREME COURT Counsel only No expectation. Judges only Harvard Bluebook. Manual of Style. Rev. ed. Trenton, N.J.: Administrative Office of the Courts, 1979. 15p. NEW MEXICO SUPREME COURT Counsel only "Any consistent method or form which adequately identifies the cited authority and aids the court may be used." Crim. App. R. 501(e). "All New Mexico decision shall be cited from the official reports, with parallel citations if available. Other decisions may be cited from either official or unofficial reports, parallel citations being desired so far as available to the counsel. Unofficial citations shall always identify the court rendering the decision." Civ. App. R. 9(j). Judges only Joseph E. Samora, A Comprehensive Manual for the Supreme Court of New Mexico and the New Mexico Court of Appeals. 2nd ed. Santa Fe: Supreme Court of New Mexico, 1984. This manual in turn mandates following the Harvard Bluebook, with a few minor variations which were suggested by West Publishing Company. NEW YORK COURT OF APPEALS Counsel only CPLR 5529(e) prescribes the form for case citations. Judges only Official New York law reports style manual / prepared by the Law Reporting Bureau of the State of New York ; compiled and edited by Frederick A. Muller. -- Rochester, N.Y. : Lawyers Co-operative Pub. Co., 1987. 59 p. (new edition expected summer 1992). Additional citation material New York Rules of Citation. Jamaica, N.Y.: St. John's Law Review, 1978. 32p. NORTH CAROLINA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. NORTH DAKOTA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges No expectation. OHIO SUPREME COURT Counsel only No expectation. Judges only Manual of the Forms of Citation Used in the Ohio Official Reports. Columbus: Supreme Court, 1985. 48p. Additional citation material Ohio Northern University Law Review. Style Manual. Ada: Ohio Northern University Law Review, 1979. ix, 80p. OKLAHOMA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges No expectation. OREGON SUPREME COURT Counsel only Harvard Bluebook. Oregon Rules of Appellate Procedure. Appendix G. Judges only Appellate Court Style Manual. Salem: Administrative Office of the Courts, 1984. 26p. PENNSYLVANIA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. RHODE ISLAND SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual. Judges only In-house style sheet. SOUTH CAROLINA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. SOUTH DAKOTA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook Judges only Internal memo follows the Harvard Bluebook but suggests variant citation forms according to guidelines from West Publishing Company. TENNESSEE SUPREME COURT Counsel only Tennessee Rules of Appellate Procedure, 27(h) Judges only No expectation. Additional citation material Laska, Tennessee Rules of Citation, 12 Memphis State U.L. Rev. 547 (1982). TEXAS SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Texas Rules of Form. 7th ed. Austin: Texas Law Review, 1990. 62p. Additional citation material Greenhill, Uniform Citations for Briefs, 27 Texas B.J. 323 (1964). Texas Law Review Manual on Style. 6th ed. Austin: Texas Law Review, 1990. vii, 79p. UTAH SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. VERMONT SUPREME COURT Counsel only No expectation. Judges only Harvard Bluebook. VIRGINIA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges No expectation. WASHINGTON SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook. Richard F. Jones, Washington Reports Style Manual. 4th ed. Olympia, WA: Supreme Court, 1982. 37p. WEST VIRGINIA SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges Harvard Bluebook WISCONSIN SUPREME COURT Counsel and judges "The Supreme Court has adopted the citation form in 'A Uniform System of Citations,' published by the Harvard Law Review, for all citations in opinions and orders of the Court. The one exception to this is that citations to Wisconsin Statutes will continue to be cited sec. 250.70, Stats., rather than the form prescribed by the uniform system. Attorneys who file briefs or memoranda with the Supreme Court are requested to follow the same citation form." Notice to Members of the Bar, 74 Wis. 2d xxxix (November 4, 1976). Wisconsin Supreme Court Rule, 80.02 prescribes the form for citing decisions of the Court of Appeals and Supreme Court WYOMING SUPREME COURT Counsel only No expectation. Judges only Harvard Bluebook. by John Doyle.
The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citations [The Harvard Bluebook] gets a new edition every three years. In between there are "printings" with changes. The next edition [17th] should be 1999. [Actually, the Bluebook is revised every 5 years, with the new edition due in 2001. The last edition, the 16th edition, first appeared in August 1996. A history of the Bluebook, along with a detailed description of major changes in the 16th edition appears at: 26 Stetson Law Review 53 (1996); volume 6 of the Scribes Journal of Legal Writing also contains an article on the 10 most significant changes in the 16th edition of the Bluebook.] The newest copy [16th edition, Sixth Printing 1998] of the Bluebook has arrived. These are some of the "noteworthy changes" included this latest printing: Rule 1.2 Use of Introductory Signals [see, see also, Cf., etc] - has been modified, and the number has been reduced. Rule 3.3 Pages, Footnotes, Endnotes, and Graphical Materials - been expanded to include citation formats for endnotes and graphical materials. Rule 10.3.1 Parallel Citations - has been modified to require use of an official public domain citation format when available. Rule 10.4 Court and Jurisdiction - The abbreviation for citing the decisions of bankruptcy appllate panels has been modified. Rule 10.5 Date or Year - Now requires an exact date for all unreported cases and for all cases cited to a looseleaf service, a slip opinion, an electronic database, or a newspaper. Rule 10.7 Prior and Subsequent History - No longer requires that denials of cert. or denials of similar discretionary appeals be indicated unless the decision is less than two years old or the denial is particularly relevant. Rule 12.5 Secondary Sources - Updated to provide a special citation format for citing a code contained in an electronic database. Rule 12.8.5 Model Codes, etc. - Expanded to include sentencing guidelines. Rule 13 Legislative Materials - Modified to eliminate the identification of the session number when the session can otherwise be inferred from the remainder of the citation. Rule 13.4 Reports, Documents, and Committee Prints - The format for citing numbered reports and documents has been modified. Rule 15.1 Author, Editor, and Translator - Modified to require the full name as it appears on the publication being cited. Rule 16.1 Same as Rule 15.1, but for periodicals. Rule 17.3.3 Internet Sources - Guidance for citing materials from the Internet. Rule 19 Foreign Materials - Requires that citations conform closely to local citation practice of the jurisdictions whose material in being cited. Table T.2 - Revised and expanded and should be used in conjunction with Rule 19 in determining citation format. Rule 20.8.4 WTO and GATT - New citation format for these organizations. Tables T.1 and T.2 - have been updated and expanded. Table 14 - has been eliminated; Tables 15 to 17 have been renumbered as Tables 14 to 16.
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